Complete Course BIOL 103 week 1 to week 7 and Final Project
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Wednesday, 29 July 2015

Complete Course BIOL 103 week 1 to week 7 and Final Project

BIOL 103 BIOL103Complete Course BIOL 103 week 1 to week 7 and Final Project
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BIOL 103 Complete Course
BIOL 103 Week 1 Discussion
Topic 1 The Scientific Method
Visit the "Course Content" area, then click on the "Science Learning Center" and finally click on "The Scientific Method Tutorial".  After you have read through the tutorial, work on the following exercise:
A group of 10 overweight patients have increased levels of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. Based on this limited information and using the scientific method:
I. Develop a question followed by a hypothesis. Then . . 
II. Design a brief experiment to test your hypothesis (make sure to indicate a control) and describe predicted results.
(The reading for this week in our textbook will also help you in this exercise).

Topic 2 What is life?
How can we possibly define life? Or, how can we tell when something is alive?

Are there certain characteristics which make us say that an animal (a cat or a dog) is alive as opposed to a chunk of rock?

As a response to this Topic, describe at least one characteristic that you think is shared by all things that are alive and explain why you think it's important. Feel free to be as creative as you like!! Also feel free to dispute the characteristics described in the text or those suggested by your fellow classmates.
BIOL 103 Week 2 Discussion
Topic 1 Chemistry Review
·         Work on the following review questions. Post your answers. At the end of the week I'll post the correct answers. You may use any study resources butDO NOT COPY YOUR CLASSMATE'S ANSWERS. Remember that practice questions will only benefit you if you complete your own work  IF YOU CHEAT, YOU ARE ONLY CHEATING YOURSELF.

1. True or False? The outer-shell electrons participate in the formation of covalent bonds between atoms.

2. True or False? The atomic number of hydrogen is 1.

3. True or False? A solution has a pH of 6.8.  This pH is acidic.

4. True or False? A buffer adds hydrogen ions into a solution to control the acidity of that solution.

5. True or False? Cereals are a dietary source of carbohydrates.

Fill-in-the-Blank
1. The ____________ of an atom contains most of its mass.

2.. The atomic mass (mass number) an atom is equal to the number of ______ and neutrons of that atom.

Answer: protons
 3. Ions can have a(n) ________ or ________ charge.

4. Sodium chloride is formed as a result of a(n) ___________ bond.

5. A molecule that helps to regulate pH is called a(n) ________.

6. A(n) ____________ is a subatomic particle with a positive charge.

7. A(n)_____________ is an uncharged particle found in the nucleus of an atom.

8. Elements are composed of one type of __________.

9. Many isotopes release ________, small bursts of energy.

10. The strongest bond is the ____________ _______.  Two atoms share outer-shell electrons.

11. Organic compounds always have ________ bonds.

12. Water is a biological ________.

13. HCl is an acid because it dissociates to form ________ ions.

14. Buffers remove ________ ions from solution.

Short Answer
14. On the pH scale  label the ranges for basic, acidic, and neutral pHs.

Answer:
                        0 _____________________ 7 ________________________ 14
                        
15. What are the differences between a covalent bond and an ionic bond?


16. What are the four important groups of biological molecules?


 17. Match each term on the left to an appropriate association on the right.

1. ____ electron        A. positively charged component of the atomic nucleus
2. ____ neutron         B. negative particles that form a cloud around the nucleus
3. ____ proton          C. uncharged particles in the atomic nucleus

18. Match each term on the left to an appropriate association on the right.

1. ___ covalent          A. weak interaction between atoms on different molecules
2. ___ hydrogen        B. bond that forms a molecule from oppositely charged particles
3. ___ ionic               C. bond where electrons are shared

19. Match each term on the left to an appropriate association on the right.

1. ___ carbohydrate          A. chain of amino acids
2. ___ lipid                       B. DNA
3. ___ protein                   C. starch is an example
4. ___ nucleic acids            D. insulates under the skin
BIOL 103 Week 3 Discussion
Topic 1 Cellular Respiration & Photosynthesis
In 6 (minimum) to 12 (maximum) sentences, briefly summarize in your own words: (1) similarities in the processes of cellular respiration and photosynthesis OR (2) differences in the two processes.
OR
Respond to a posting of a classmate with a minimum of 6 sentences that adds to the discussion by correcting misconceptions or providing additional information.
Topic 2
You have just isolated a new cell and you wish to classify it. Assume that you are able to see the inside of your cell with the lab. microscope. 
1) How would you determine if your cell is either eukaryotic or prokaryotic?What are the similarities/differences of eukaryotic/prokaryotic cells? 
2) Assume that your cell is eukaryotic. How would you determine if your cell is either an animal or plant cell? What are the similarities and differences of animal/plant cells? (Remember that animal and plant cells are eukaryotic.)
BIOL 103 Week 4 Discussion
Topic 1 Sexual Reproduction
Why do you think that sexual reproduction is considered a pillar of evolutionary advancement? Practically all species (except the most simple) have the ability to reproduce sexually. What do you think are the evolutionary advantages of sexual as opposed to asexual reproduction?
Topic 2 Meiosis - Its Complicated
Meiosis is a complicated process. When you consider the process of pairing in prophase and the accuracy needed for two cell divisions, you might not be surprised to find that often things do go wrong. In humans, for example, about one third of all pregnancies spontaneously abort in the first two or three months. Most of these aborted embryos have the wrong number of chromosomes. Failure of the chromosomes to separate correctly is called nondisjunction.
Not all failures of meiosis result in early miscarriage. There are late miscarriages and stillbirths of severely malformed fetuses with wrong chromosome numbers. In addition, about one live-born human baby in 200 has the wrong number of chromosomes, often accompanied by severe abnormalities.
One of the most common chromosomal abnormalities is Trisomy 21, or Down's Syndrome resulting from three copies of chromosome 21. This occurs in about one baby in 600. Characteristics of Down syndrome include rounded features, an enlarged tongue that often protrudes, and various internal disorders.
 Trisomy 21 occurs more frequently among babies born to women over 35 years old. The age of the father has little or no effect.
What do you think are possible reasons leading to this meiotic nondisjunction in female eggs? It is interesting to note that the total amount of women's eggs are already set by the time she is born, while a man's sperm is continuosly produced. Do you think that there could be some other environmental problems affecting this situation?
BIOL 103 Week 5 Discussion
Topic 1 Personal Habits & Choices
Explain how personal habits and individual choices can affect a person's risk of developing cancers. Do you have a personal habit and/or an individual choice that affects your risk of developing cancer?
Topic 2  Genetically Engineered Organisms
In what ways might genetically engineered organisms pose a threat to the health and safety of human populations? What kinds of safeguards exist to reduce this threat?

BIOL 103 Week 6 Discussion
Topic 1 Weird Organisms
The living organisms that exist upon the earth exhibit a wide array of physical, chemical, and behavioral variation. Each feature of an organism is an adaptation acquired by that species through evolution, which uniquely suits an organism to survival within a given set of environmental conditions.
Find an example of the weirdest, wildest, most bizarre or interesting species you can. Discuss those features that uniquely suit this organism to survival within a given set of environmental conditions. When considering the features of an organism, include its observable physical characteristics (which can be seen by the naked eye), as well as the molecular, metabolic, or chemical characteristics of the organism that can occur at the level of (or within) cells. You can draw examples from the textbook or search the Web for the organism of your choice. If you can find it on the web, include a link to a picture or description of your organism. My only requirement is, with the huge diversity of organisms available, I do not expect to see the same organism twice. Include links or references if appropriate.
Topic 2 Antibiotic Resistance
Based on what you have learned in this section, discuss how some microbes that produce infections in humans have become resistant to antibiotics. Find one example of microbial resistance  (within the last five years) that has produced illness in humans. Please make sure to cite your source (books, magazines, internet, etc)!
BIOL 103 Week 7 Discussion
Topic 1 Population Growth
China has the largest world population. Although China is roughly the same size as the US, it has about 4.6 times as many people. Since 1970, China has made massive efforts to bring its population growth under control. Between 1972 and 1996 China had a sharp decrease in its crude birth rate (from 32 to 17 per 1,000 people. Life expectancy in China is 70 years. China's per capita income of $530 is higher than that of India. Despite these achievements, its population is projected to reach 1.5 billion by 2025.
To achieve its drop in fertility, China has established a very strict population control program. Couples are strongly urged to postpone the age at which they marry and to have no more than one child. Married couples have easy access to free sterilization, contraceptives and abortion.
Families who pledge to have no more than one child are given extra food, larger pensions, better housing, free medical care, and salary bonuses. Their child will be given free school tuition and preferential treatment in employment. The result is that 81% of married women in China are using modern contraception, compared to 57% in developed countries and only 35% in developing countries.
The United Nations projects that the population of China may reach 1.7 billion before reaching zero population growth, probably around 2100, mostly because 27% of the population was under age 15 in 1996. To slow its growth, the Chinese government is now putting more emphasis on improving the status of women, providing old age security, and improving family planning and health services for mothers and children.
China's large and still growing population has a tremendous environmental impact. China has 21% of the world's population, but only 7% of its freshwater and cropland, 3% of its forests, and 2% of its soil. Most of the nation's rivers (especially in urban areas) are seriously polluted.
What is your opinion regarding China's population policy? Do you think that you could use it in the United States (or your country of origin?)
Topic 2 Mutualism (Symbiosis)
Most domesticated animals and plants that we use for food benefit from a mutualistic relationship with us. In exchange for food, we care for them and ensure their continued reproduction. However, through crossbreeding and genetic engineering (to increase food production) we have eliminated many of the adaptive traits they need for survival in the wild. How do you feel about this form of mutualism we have imposed on other species? How would your life be changed if we decided to end this mutualistic relationship? Do you believe that domesticated animals we raise should be treated as humanely as possible during the time we are fattening them up for slaughter? Explain. What effect might this have on the price and availability of meat produced from such animals?
BIOL 103 Written Assignments
BIOL 103 Biology and Technology in the Real World
Biology and Technology in the Real World
Instructions

Written Assignment: Biology and Technology in the Real World
Addresses course outcomes 1-4:
•           recognize and explain how the scientific method is used to solve problems
•           make observations and discriminate between scientific and pseudoscientific explanations
•           weigh evidence and make decisions based on strengths and limitations of scientific knowledge and the scientific method
•           use knowledge of biological principles, the scientific method, and appropriate technologies to ask relevant questions, develop hypotheses, design and conduct experiments, interpret results, and draw conclusions
1. Select one of the topics listed below.
2. Find at least two information sources related to the topic. You can find assistance with searching for articles at the UMUC Library Subject Guides athttp://libguides.umuc.edu/science.
3. Write a 750-1500 word paper, excluding references and title page. You must read the information sources that you find and summarize the information in your own words, addressing each of the questions and expectations for your chosen topic. Extensive quotes from the article are discouraged. Use APA style for citing references, see http://www.umuc.edu/library/guides/apa.html.
4. Post your assignment to your Assignments folder by the due date listed in the course schedule.
 Topics (select one)
a) Genetically modified organisms (GMOs). What is the purpose genetic engineering of crop plants and domestic animals? Briefly explain how GMOs are created. What foods in your supermarket contain GMOs? Are foods that contain GMOs safe for human consumption? What types of regulations exist for these foods? Clearly explain your reasoning for each answer. The following website from FDA regarding GMO regulation may be helpful:http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm352067.htm
b) Stem cells. Your friend had a spinal cord injury after a bad car accident. The medical team has decided that he is a good candidate for a clinical trial using stem cell therapy. Your friend has not had a biology course since high school, so you decide to write him a letter sharing your knowledge of stem cells. Include in your letter a description of the biology of stem cells and how these cells are unique from other cells. Contrast the different types of stem cells, including pros and cons of each. Explain how stems cells are can be used to treat diseases and injury, with special focus on spinal cord injuries. Conclude with your own opinion. The following website from NIH regarding stem cell research will be very helpful: http://stemcells.nih.gov/index.asp.
c) Fracking (hydraulic fracturing) and tar sands (oil sands).  With society's dependence on nonrenewable fossil fuels, the oil & gas industry is turning to the use of hydraulic fracturing and tar (oil) sands to extract natural gas and oil respectively.  A friend asks you "What's all this controversy in the news about fracking and tar sands?"  Briefly explain to your friend how hydraulic fracturing and tar (oil) sands are used to obtain these fossil fuels. Then, in more detail, describe the environmental problems that may result from these processes and why they are controversial. Issues that may be addressed involves, but are not limited to, water, air and soil pollution, effects on human health, effects on other species and natural ecosystems. Finally, give your opinions on possible solutions to these environmental problems, with your reasoning backed by the references that you studied. The following websites from EPA may be helpful: http://www2.epa.gov/hydraulicfracturing

BIOL 103 Outline Final Applied Lab Project
Outline Final Applied Lab Project
Instructions    
Outline submit in assignment folder by week 5 deadline.
Include the following in your outline:
•           Name of enzyme you will use
•           Name of organism (if applicable)
•           The substrate
•           Method for measuring enzyme activity
•           Treatment: acidic fluid(s), pH, length of exposure, how you will treat your samples
•           The control(s) in the experiment
•           Sample size
•           Hypothesis
•           How you will present your data (table and/or type of graph)
•           Anything else you would like to get feedback on before you start your experiment
BIOL 103 Final Applied Lab Project
Final Applied Lab Project
Instructions    
Final Applied Lab Project (1 credit Lab Component)
 Addresses course outcomes 1-4:
•           recognize and explain how the scientific method is used to solve problems
•           make observations and discriminate between scientific and pseudoscientific explanations
•           weigh evidence and make decisions based on strengths and limitations of scientific knowledge and the scientific method
•           use knowledge of biological principles, the scientific method, and appropriate technologies to ask relevant questions, develop hypotheses, design and conduct experiments, interpret results, and draw conclusions
This is the culminating lab assessment in BIOL 103. It is designed to assess your ability to apply the principles of the scientific method.
The Effect of low pH on Enzyme Activity
Design an experiment in which you will test the effect of an acidic fluid on enzymatic activity. Recall: enzymes are proteins! To complete this project, it may be useful for you to first review the Scientific Method Tutorial, the OLI module about pH and enzymes, Lab 1 (Introduction to Science) and Lab 4 (Enzymes).  As you review Lab 4, you will be reminded that there are several factors that impact enzymatic activity: pH, temperature, and amount of reagent. It is OK to use the same enzyme/substrate/method as you did in lab 4 (but modify the treatment), or you can search on-line to find a different enzyme/substrate/method for measuring enzyme activity for your project (include all references).
As you design your experiment for this project, please remember that you are trying to examine how an acidic fluid will modify the outcome of an enzymatic reaction.  To successfully complete this project, you will need to identify the question(s) being asked in your experiment and the hypothesis that you are testing.  In your experimental design, you must clearly explain what you are doing. That means that you will need to identify the enzyme, the substrate, the acidic fluid used as treatment, the control treatment and the method of measuring enzyme activity, as well as explain your experimental protocol.  You must also thoroughly explain how the acidic fluid impacted enzyme activity based on the results from your own experiment as well as knowledge of enzymes and pH from the OLI modules, lab manual and potentially additional information sources.
Hint: Keep in mind that the acid will change the environmental conditions of the experiment (for example, a low pH value could change the shape of the active site on the enzyme protein), without directly participating in the reaction.
Lab Materials
You may need all or some of the following, depending on your experimental design:
Materials from your lab kit:
•           pH paper
•           hydrogen peroxide solution (you can purchase this at a pharmacy if you have used up the bottle that came with the lab kit)
•           plastic beakers or cups
•           vinegar
•           yeast (can be purchased at grocery store if more is needed)
•           balloons
•           plastic bottle
•           marker for labeling of beakers
You may choose to use additional materials (different acidic fluids and/or different organisms and/or different substrate if you chose an enzyme other than catalase).
Outline (10 points) submit in assignment folder in week 7.
Include the following in your outline:
•           Name of enzyme you will use
•           Name of organism (if applicable)
•           The substrate
•           Method for measuring enzyme activity
•           Treatment: acidic fluid(s), pH, length of exposure, how you will treat your samples
•           The control(s) in the experiment
•           Sample size
•           Hypothesis
•           How you will present your data (table and/or type of graph)
•           Anything else you would like to get feedback on before you start your experiment

Write a paper that includes the following:
1. Title page: descriptive title, your name, course name, semester
2. Introduction: general background information about enzymes and specific information about your chosen enzyme, the question(s) that you are asking and a clear hypothesis for your experiment (15 points).
3. Design an experiment. Provide a detailed description of the materials and methods used to conduct the experiment. Identify control and experimental samples, as well as independent and dependent variables. Also include the methods used for data collection and analysis (20 points).
4. Conduct the experiment and record your results. What did you observe? Present your data in table and/or graph format. Remember to label everything and include the unit of measure with all numbers (20 points)
5. Use your knowledge of enzymes and pH to interpret and discuss your results. It may be necessary for you to refer to the OLI course modules, lab manual and/or use additional information resources. What effect does the acidic treatment have on enzyme activity? Did you get the expected results? Explain. (15 points)
6. State a specific and accurate conclusion. Is your hypothesis supported by the results? Looking back, how could you have improved your experiment? (10 points)
7. Include a list of references to all information sources used in APA format (5 points).
BIOL 103 BIOL103Complete Course BIOL 103 week 1 to week 7 and Final Project



 
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