SCI 115 Complete Course Week 1 to Week 11
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Friday, 16 October 2015

SCI 115 Complete Course Week 1 to Week 11

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SCI 115 Week 1Discussion

"Self-Replication and Cells" 

Note:
 Online students, please respond to one (1) of the following four (4) bulleted options:
·         Suppose that someone used nanotechnology to build little robots (called “nanobots”) that could make copies of themselves. Discuss whether or not you believe the nanobots would be alive. Explain why or why not?


·         Go to The Economist website to read the article titled "A Game of Cat and Mouse", dated June 3, 2010. Discuss what you believe are the main points of the article. Explain how it relates to this week’s lessons. Give examples with your response.
·         A person is declared to be dead upon the irreversible cessation of spontaneous body functions: brain activity, or blood circulation and respiration. However, only about 1% of a person’s cells have to die in order for all of these things to happen. Explain how a person can be dead when 99% of his or her cells are still alive, and provide examples with your explanation. 
·         In 2005, researcher Woo-suk Hwang reported that he had made immortal stem cells from human patients. His research was hailed as a breakthrough for people affected by degenerative diseases, because stem cells may be used to repair a person’s own damaged tissues. Hwang published his results in a peer-reviewed journal. In 2006, the journal retracted his paper after other scientists discovered that Hwang’s group had faked the data. Discuss the implications of the incident. In your brief discussion, determine if the incident shows that results of scientific studies cannot be trusted or if it confirms the usefulness of a scientific approach, because other scientists discovered and exposed the fraud.
SCI 115 Week 2 Discussion
"Molecules and Cell Structures" 

Note:
 Online students, please respond to one (1) of the four (4) bulleted options.
·         In an essay of the universal nature of biochemistry, located at http://www.pnas.org/content/98/3/805.full), Norman Pace argues that carbon is the only chemical element that can form the backbones of molecules that make up living things. Determine what Pace’s argument is and explain why he believes this.
·          
·         The bonding properties of water give it certain characteristics: surface tension, capillary action, universal solvent, high specific heat, and a high heat of vaporization. Indicate three reasons why you believe these properties are important to organisms that live underwater. In your own words, explain one of the following everyday phenomena in regard to the bonding properties of water, and propose one other everyday phenomenon that demonstrates the bonding properties of water:

·          
o    Why do you feel cool when you sweat?
o     
o    Why do paper towels (made of cellulose, another polar molecule) absorb water?
o     
o    How can a water strider walk on water?
                        A group working at the University of California, Berkeley has developed “nanothermometers,” little nanoparticles that can be injected into cells to measure the temperature in various places in the cell. So far, they have been used in cells growing in a culture dish. Indicate what you think the group will discover about the temperature in different parts of the cell. Discuss whether you believe it will be the same or different, and explain why.
                        The 1992 movie Lorenzo’s Oil recounts the story of six-year-old Lorenzo Odone and his battle with adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), which is caused by a malfunctioning organelle called a peroxisome. A peroxisome is an organelle that ordinarily contains enzymes capable of breaking down long-chain fatty acids. In ALD, the enzyme is missing, and when long-chain fatty acids accumulate, muscle weakness, and loss of control result. Select the organelle in the cell that is the most similar in structure and function to a peroxisome, and explain why you chose that organelle. Describe the function and structure of the organelle that you chose. Give examples of how a dietician might be able to help a person with ALD.
                        http://workbank247.com/q/sci-115-complete-course-week-1-to-week-11/12289
SCI 115 Week 3 Discussion
"Energy for Life and Energy Reactions and Processes" 
Note: Online students, please respond to one (1) of the following four (4) bulleted items.
·         The breakdown of ATP releases energy, which is utilized by other reactions that require energy. Identify other examples where inventions have utilized a similar principle, where energy released during one reaction is utilized elsewhere. List three reasons why either one of the processes is more efficient than the other.
·          
·         Go to one (1) of the Websites listed below to read the blog post of your choice. Discuss the main points of the blog post you chose to read. Explain how it relates to this week’s lessons. Give examples with your response.
                - "How Exercise Can Strengthen the Brain"
                - "Can Exercise Keep You Young?"
·         Go to the Dive Discover Website and review the Web page titled “Vent Biology: Introduction to Photosynthesis vs. Chemosynthesis”. Analyze the major similarities and differences between chemosynthesis and photosynthesis. Determine what you believe is the most significant step in regard to harnessing energy within each process, and explain why.
·         Go to The Guardian’s Website to read the article titled “GM microbe breakthrough paves way for large-scale seaweed farming for biofuels”, dated January 19, 2012. Discuss the main point of the article. Determine at least three (3) benefits of the genetically modified organism(s) described in the article. Give your opinion about what risks the genetically modified organisms pose to society, and explain how non-scientist citizens can arrive at an informed opinion in such matters.
"Bird Flu Research, DNA, and RNA" Please respond to the following:

Note:
 Online students, please respond to one (1) of the following three (3) bulleted items.
·         Go to one (1) of the Websites listed below to read the article of your choice. Examine the benefits and risks this research poses to society. Indicate if you believe there are more benefits or more risks associated with this research, and give a rationale with your response.
·         Examine the differences between DNA and RNA. Explain the main reasons DNA is the most favorable molecule for genetic material and how RNA compares to it in this respect.
·         Mutations are the original source of genetic variation. Explain how mutations can accumulate in DNA, given that cells have repair systems that fix mispaired nucleotides or breaks in DNA strands. Give an example of a genetic mutation with your response.

SCI 115 Week 5 Discussion
"Cells and Cancer and Sexual Reproduction" Please respond to the following:
Note: Online students, please respond to one (1) of the following four (4) bulleted items.
·         Go to the Science Blogs Website and read the blog post titled “Dichloroacetate and cancer”. Explain how the blog post ties in with this week’s lessons. Indicate three (3) significant ways this post tells us about the link between metabolism, apoptosis, and cancer, and provide an example with your response.
·         Go to the Postcards from Winticomack Website and read the blog post titled, “Using genetically-modified bacteria to fight cancer at Johns Hopkins”. Discuss the main point of the article. Determine at least three (3) benefits of the genetically modified bacteria described in the article. Give your opinion on what risks the genetically modified bacteria may pose to those receiving the cancer treatments.  
·         Describe the major differences between Meiosis I and Meiosis II. Explain what you believe is the most significant difference in respect to sexual reproduction, and explain why.
·         Discuss the advantages of sexual reproduction in plants over asexual reproduction. Determine if there are any disadvantages, and explain why or why not.

SCI 115 Week 5 Assignment 1 Biology Article
Due Week 5 and worth 120 points
Use the Internet and / or the Strayer Learning Resource Center to research aspects of biology.
Select an article from a magazine or newspaper that has something in it that pertains to biology. This will serve as the “target article” for this assignment. For instance, you can select an article about medicine, invasive species, nature, conservation, genetic technology, ecology, or any other topic that is related to biology. One purpose of this assignment is to help you become aware of how biology is related to your everyday life.
Write a one to three (1-3) page paper in which you:
1.      Summarize the article in one (1) or more paragraphs, using your own words. Be sure to identify the article using an in-text citation in the body of the paper, as well as a reference in the reference section. 
2.      Explain how the article relates to this course. Identify which biological concepts from the course and / or text are relevant to the topic covered in the article. Citing the course text, discuss the ways in which this course does (or doesn’t) provide background information to help you understand the article and the larger issues surrounding it. 
3.      Explain why the article caught your attention. Relate the article to your life and to issues that are important to you. Discuss how or if the scientific knowledge about the topic covered in the article affects you directly or indirectly.
4.      Discuss your opinion on how research on this topic should be funded. State whether you think taxpayer monies should support research on this topic or whether such research in this area should be funded by the private sector. Rate the importance of research on this topic, relative to other areas of research. 
In addition to the target article, you should use at least one additional resource, such as your textbook or another article. You must have a reference section which contains an APA reference to your chosen article and all other sources. Additionally, you must provide in-text citations (in APA format) to your references in the body of the text. Integrate all sources into your paper using proper techniques of quoting, paraphrasing and summarizing, along with your in-text citations.
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:
·         Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
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SCI 115 Week 6 Discussion
"Inheritance and Genetic Engineering" Please respond to the following:
Note: Online students, please respond to one (1) of the following four (4) bulleted items.
·         Compare and contrast the Mendelian and non-Mendelian patterns of inheritance. Describe what you believe is the most significant difference, and explain why.
·         In 1918, an influenza pandemic that originated with avian flu killed 50 million people. Researchers isolated samples of that virus from bodies of infected people preserved in Alaskan permafrost since 1918. From the samples, they sequenced the viral genome, and then reconstructed the virus. The reconstructed virus is 39,000 times more infectious than modern influenza strains, and 100 percent lethal in mice. Understanding how this virus works can help us defend ourselves against other deadly influenza strains that arise. For example, discovering what makes it so infectious would help researchers design more effective vaccines. Consider this statement: Critics of the research are concerned that if the virus escapes the containment facilities (even though it has not done so yet), it might cause another pandemic. Worse, terrorists could use the published DNA sequence and methods to make the virus for horrific purposes. Determine whether or not you believe this research makes us more or less safe, and explain why. Propose at least one (1) other application these discoveries could be used for.
·         Go to one (1) of the Websites below to read the article of your choice. Discuss the main point of the article you chose to read.  Determine at least three (3) benefits of the genetically modified organism(s) described in the article. Give your opinion about what risks the genetically modified organisms pose to society, and justify how non-scientist citizens can arrive at an informed opinion in such matters.  
          -"Engineering Food for All"
·         Go to The New York Times Website to read the article titled “Concerns are raised about genetically-engineered mosquitos”, dated October 30. In your own words, summarize the pros and cons of using genetically engineered insects to control pests. Determine if you would be for or against the use of genetically engineered insects in your neighborhood, and explain why.
SCI 115 Week 7 Discussion
"Effective Evolution and Processes Affecting Evolution" Please respond to the following:
Note: Online students, please respond to one (1) of the following four (4) bulleted items.
·         The human appendix, a vestigal extension off the large intestine, is homologous to a structure called a caecum, generally larger than our appendix, and houses bacteria that aid in digesting cellulose, the main component of plants. Explain how the presence of the appendix might be used to show our common ancestry with other mammals, and determine what it might tell us about the dietary history of humans. Provide an example with your response.
·         Geneticists compare DNA base sequences among organisms and from this data determine a gene’s rate of evolution. Different genes have been found to evolve at different rates. Explain why some genes might have faster rates of evolution than other genes as populations adapt to their environments, and give an example with your explanation.
·         Go to The Economist Website to read the article titled “Subtle poison”, dated March 31, 2012. Explain the main point of the article and how it relates to this week's lessons. Discuss the effect pesticides and other man-made chemicals could potentially have on the process of evolution, and give examples with your response.
·         Species have been traditionally characterized as “primitive” and “advanced.” For example, mosses were considered to be primitive, and flowering plants advanced; crocodiles were primitive and mammals were advanced. Most biologists of today think it is incorrect to characterize any modern species as primitive. Determine whether or not you believe it is incorrect to refer to any modern species as primitive, and explain why.

SCI 115 Week 8 Discussion
"Evolution of Disease and Plant Evolution" Please respond to the following:

Note: Online students, please respond to one (1) of the following four (4) bulleted items.
·         Go to The New York Times Website to read the article titled “10 genes, furiously evolving”, dated May 4, 2009. Summarize the main points of the article. Determine what you believe is the most significant piece of information discussed in this article that helps scientists understand the evolution of viruses, and explain why.
·         A subset of what are called “Neglected Tropical Diseases” (NTDs) is caused by parasitic worms. Use the Internet or the Strayer Library to research one (1) NTD that results from a parasitic worm. Describe the NTD you researched and the organism that causes it. Explain how the NTD you researched relates to this lesson. Provide a rationale with your response. (In your discussion, provide the URL for the article.)  
·         Several algae blooms have been in the news recently. Use the Internet or the Strayer Library to find one (1) article about an algae bloom. Summarize the main points of the article you found. Explain how this article relates to this week's lesson, and give three (3) examples with your response. (In your discussion, provide the URL for the article.)  
·         Use the Internet or the Strayer Library to find one (1) resource that provides an illustration, animation, or simulation about the alternation of generations in plants. Describe the resource you found, and conclude whether or not it helps you to understand the alternation of generations in plants. Determine how you would rate the resource from a scale of 1-5, with 1 being the worst and 5 being the best, in helping you understand alteration of generations in plants. Explain why you chose this rating. (In your discussion, provide the URL for the resource.) 

SCI 115 Week 8 Assignment 2 Gene Technology
Assignment 2: Gene Technology
Due Week 8 and worth 120 points
Gene technology carries with it social and ethical implications—many of which engender personal views and discussion.
Select one (1) of the following biotechnology topics to write about: 
·         Genetically modified crop plants
·         Genetically modified microorganisms
·         Genetically modified animals
·         Personal genomics and / or personalized medicine for humans
·         Gene therapy
Write a four to six (4 to 6) page paper on your chosen topic.  Organize your paper into sections corresponding to the following requirements:
1.      Biological basis. Describe the technology. Discuss what it accomplishes. Elaborate on the scientific principles that make this technology possible. Your goal in this section of the paper is to show the instructor that you understand the underlying science behind the technology. Describe how exactly the technology works. Discuss the biological principles that underlie this technology.
2.      Social and ethical implications. Without disclosing your personal view about this technology, provide an analysis of its social and ethical implications. State the ethical concerns apparent in the use of this technology. Discuss the benefits and risks. Your goal in this section is to look at all sides of the issue. In the next section, you will give your opinion. 
3.      Personal viewpoint. In the previous section, your goal was to be as objective as possible, to look at all sides of the issues. In this section, your goals are to give a personal opinion about the technology and provide a justification of that opinion. 
4.      Use at least three (3) quality resources in this assignment, in addition to the course text. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources. The body of the paper must have in-text citations that correspond to the references. Integrate all sources into your paper using proper techniques of quoting, paraphrasing and summarizing, along with proper use of in-text citations to credit your sources.
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:
·         Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
·         Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
·         Examine DNA structure, and function, gene expression, and control.
·         Discuss the various applications of genomics and biotechnology.
·         Use technology and information resources to research issues in biology.
·         Write clearly and concisely about biology using proper writing mechanics.
Click here to view the grading rubric. 


SCI 115 Week 9 Discussion

"Evolution in Animals and Population of Humans"
 Please respond to the following:

Note:
 Online students, please respond to one (1) of the following four (4) bulleted items.
·         Humans belong to the genus Homo and chimpanzees to the genus Pan, yet studies of primate genes show that chimpanzees and humans are more closely related to one another than each is to any other animals. In light of this result, some researchers suggest that chimpanzees should be renamed as members of the genus Homo. Discuss at least three (3) practical, scientific, and / or ethical issues that might be raised by such a change in naming.
·         Consider the animals in this week’s readings that are radially symmetrical (cnidarians, many adult echinoderms). Choose one (1) animal that is radially symmetrical and discuss how its lifestyle is different from that of bilaterally symmetrical animals. Illustrate how its body plan complements its lifestyle.
·         The age structure diagrams for two (2) hypothetical human populations are shown on Page 331 of the textbook. Describe the growth rate of each population, and discuss at least two (2) current and future social and economic problems that each is likely to face.
·         Species that are more prone to certain risk factors are more likely than others to become extinct. For example, species with a unique lineage, such as the giant panda, are likely to be at severe risk for extinction. Some argue that high-risk species are less successful products of evolution and should not receive extraordinary protection. Consequently, all species at risk for extinction should be equally protected. Determine whether or not you believe our limited resources for species protection should be focused on species that are at the highest risk for extinction, and explain why. 

SCI 115 Week 10 Discussion
"Effects on the Environment" Please respond to the following:

Note:
 Online students, please respond to one (1) of the following four (4) bulleted items.
·         Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the common nightcrawler, an annelid worm, was absent from much of the North American continent. Apparently, it had been wiped out by the glaciers of the last Ice Age. Use the Internet or the Strayer Library to research how the introduction of earthworms to North America occurred in the so-called “Columbian Exchange.” Discuss your findings. Based on what you researched, give your opinion about how it affected the environment.
·         With antibiotic resistance rising, researchers are looking for ways to reduce use of these drugs. Some cattle once fed antibiotic-laced food now get feed that includes helpful bacteria that can live in the animal’s gut. The idea is that if a large population of beneficial bacteria is in place, then harmful bacteria with the same resource needs are less likely to thrive. Explain why this idea makes sense in terms of species interactions and provide an example with your response.
·         Analyze the impact that the extinction of a species will have on an environment. Determine what you believe to be the most significant impact, and explain why.
·         Go to The New York Times Website to read the article titled “Taking advantage of a destructive insect's weakness for purple”, dated September 12, 2011. Describe how the collection of knowledge about the Ash borer's ecology and behavior are helping to control infestations of this non-native species. All of these efforts cost money. As a citizen, determine whether or not you believe that the time and effort spent collecting this information is worth it, and explain why.

SCI 115 Week 11 Discussion

"Course Recap and Looking Forward"
 Please respond to the following:
·         Thinking back on what you have learned in this course, discuss the single most interesting or surprising thing you learned, as well as what made it so.
·         If you were to speak with a friend considering taking this course, describe how would you “sell” it to him or her. Explain your rationale.

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