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PHYS310 COMPLETE COURSE
PHYS310COMPLETE COURSE

**Click below link for Answers**

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PHYS310 Lab 3 Changing Motion

STEP 1: Constant
Velocity Away

1.Paste
your graphs from Item 1 of the procedure here.

2.What is the average velocity
that you found in Item 1?

3.What is the average
acceleration that you found in Item 1?

4.Paste your graphs from Item 2
of the procedure here.

5.What is the major difference
between the velocity data in Items 1 and 2?

6.Paste your graphs from Item 3
of the procedure here.

7.What were the average
accelerations that you found from the straight line fits to the velocities?

8. What feature of your velocity
graphs signifies that the motion of the cart is away from the sensor?

9.What feature of your velocity
graphs signifies that the cart is speeding up?

10.Paste your graphs from Item 4
of the procedure here.

11.Is there a significant change
in the velocity-time graph at the instant of closest approach?

12.Make a straight-line fit of
the velocity-time graph. How does the average acceleration (slope) compare to
the acceleration found in the previous item?

13.Paste your graphs from Item 5
of the procedure here.

14.Fill in the table below. Use a
plus sign if the quantity is positive and a minus sign if it is negative.

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PHYS310 Lab 4 Linear Motion

Lab Exercise

Experiment 4.1: Free Fall

Questions

1. What happened to the washers
when you dropped the cup? How fast are they falling relative to the cup?

2. What force is keeping the water from accelerating downward while you hold the cup in place?

3. What forces are no longer present on the water while the cup is falling?

4. You have probably seen videos of astronauts moving in a “weightless” environment. Does this mean that gravity doesn’t exist in space? Explain.

Experiment 4.2: Distance of Free Fall

tavg= _____________

Questions

2. What force is keeping the water from accelerating downward while you hold the cup in place?

3. What forces are no longer present on the water while the cup is falling?

4. You have probably seen videos of astronauts moving in a “weightless” environment. Does this mean that gravity doesn’t exist in space? Explain.

Experiment 4.2: Distance of Free Fall

tavg= _____________

Questions

1. What gives a falling object
its acceleration?

2. What was the difference
between the noise patterns produced by equally-spaced nuts compared to the
second spacing given to you?

3. For the second nut spacing,
show that the total distance from the end of string for each nut increases
according to the linear kinematics equations.

4. Which of the weights had the
highest velocity when hitting the cookie sheet? Calculate this velocity (in
m/s) using the kinematics equations.

5. Using the time it took a
single hex nut to reach the pan, calculate the height from which it was
dropped. Is this accurate compared to your known height?

6. Say you have a very long
string and want the hex nuts to hit the ground 1 second apart. Using the
kinematics equations, determine the spacing for 5 nuts to hit with equal
timing. How much string would you need?

7. Draw approximate plots for the
single hex nut’s position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time. Label your axes
and include approximate numerical values.

Experiment 4.3: Graphing linear
motion

Questions (use Figure 7 to answer
the questions below)

1. During which period(s) is the
object traveling in a positive direction?

2. During which period(s) is the object traveling in a negative direction?

2. During which period(s) is the object traveling in a negative direction?

3. During which period(s) the
object at rest?

4. During which period(s) is it traveling at constant velocity?

5. During which period(s) does it experience positive acceleration?

6. During which period(s) does it experience negative acceleration?

7. What are the magnitudes of the above accelerations? Draw a plot of the acceleration vs. time for this object using Figure 7.

4. During which period(s) is it traveling at constant velocity?

5. During which period(s) does it experience positive acceleration?

6. During which period(s) does it experience negative acceleration?

7. What are the magnitudes of the above accelerations? Draw a plot of the acceleration vs. time for this object using Figure 7.

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PHYS310 Lab 5 Projectile Motion

*Tutorial includes complete laboratory (including methods and materials, experimental data, full explanations, and diagrams) with the following questions answered:*

Questions 1. If you were to throw
a ball horizontally and at the same time drop an exact copy of the ball you
threw, which ball would hit the ground first and why is this so?

2. What forces are acting on the
marble before and after it leaves the ramp?

3. Describe the acceleration of a
marble for the period after it leaves the ramp and before it hits the ground.

4. Did your prediction in
Procedure 2 come close to the actual spot? Find the percent error of your
predicted distance (expected) compared to the actual average distance
(observed).

5. Explain some possible sources
of error that could have produced the deviation above.

Experiment 2: Squeeze Rocket
projectiles

Questions

1.
Draw
a FBD (free body diagram) (you can review free body diagrams in the Week 3
lecture) for a rocket flying at an arbitrary angle. Indicate the force vector
due to gravity and force vector due to air resistance. Why does the direction
of the net force change over the course of the rocket’s trajectory?

2.
Explain
how the launch angle affects both the trajectory and final range of the rocket.
What angle (or range of angles) appears to produce the greatest range?

3.
Knowing
the kinematics equations, what angle

*should*yield the greatest projectile range, disregarding air resistance and other factors? Show all calculations.
4.
How
does air resistance affect the accuracy and precision of your rocket data in
this lab?

5.
Calculate
the percent error between your measured values and the predicted values. Given
the nature of the squeeze rocket and your results, comment on any other sources
of error that significantly affect your distance measurements.

6.
How
would a kicker on a football team use his knowledge of physics to better his
game? List some other sports or instances where this information would be
useful.

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PHYS310 Lab 6 Types of Forces

Experiment
1: Friction

Questions

1.
What happened to your applied force

*F*as you decreased the amount of water in the cup?_{app}
2.
Assume the mass of the cup and water to be equal to the mass of water alone.
Calculate the normal force

*F*for 300 g and 150 g. Use these values to complete the table above._{N}
3.
Why doesn’t the normal force

*F*depend on the cup material?_{N}
4.
Right as the cup begins to slide the applied force is equal to the force of
friction—draw a free body diagram for each type of cup (a total of three
diagrams). Calculate and label the force due to gravity

*mg*, the normal force*F*, and the friction force_{N}*F*. What makes this a state of equilibrium?_{f}
5.
What is the ratio of the applied force to the normal force

*F*/_{1}*F*? Compare this to your values for_{N1}*F*/_{2}*F*. What can you conclude about the ratio between the normal force and the applied force of friction?_{N2}
6.
The ratio F

_{f}/F_{N}is called the*coefficient of friction*between the two materials in question. We can also write F_{f}= Î¼F_{N}with the Greek letter Î¼ representing the coefficient of friction. Does it take more force to slide an object across a surface if there is a high value of Î¼ or a low one?
Experiment 2: Velocity and Air
Resistance

Questions

1.
What
are we assuming by using the average velocity from Procedure 1 to estimate the
height of the fall in Procedure 2?

2.
Is
the object actually traveling at the average speed over the duration of its
fall? Where does the acceleration occur?

3.
Draw
a free body diagram for a) the coffee filter right as it begins to fall (brief
acceleration) and b) once the filter has reached terminal velocity (constant
velocity).

4.
How
do your measured and calculated values for the height in Procedure 2 compare?
If they are significantly different, explain what you think caused the
difference.

5.
Draw
the FBD for the 2-filter combination falling at constant velocity. What is the
magnitude of the force of air resistance in this case compared to with only one
filter?

6.
How
would the FBD differ for a round rubber ball dropped from the same height? How
would the acceleration differ over the course of the fall?

##
PHYS310 Lab 7 Newton's Law

Experiment
1: Newton’s First Law

4.
Record your observations for each type of motion from Step 4 in the space
below. Comment on where the water tended to move. If it spilled, note which
side it spilled from.

Questions

Questions

1.
Explain how your observations of the water demonstrate Newton’s law of inertia.

2.
Draw free body diagrams for the box of water from the situation in Procedure
4d. Draw arrows for all forces exerted on the box—this will include the force
of gravity, the normal force (exerted by your hands), and the stopping force
(also exerted by your hands). What is the direction of the acceleration of the
box?

3.
Describe two situations where you feel forces in a car in a particular
direction. Explain these forces in terms of the car’s acceleration and your
body’s inertia.

Experiment 2: Unbalanced Forces-Newton’s Second Law

Experiment 2: Unbalanced Forces-Newton’s Second Law

Table
1: Motion Data

Trial
Number Time (s) Trial Number Time (s)

1 6

2 7

3 8

4 9

5 10

Average Time:

1 6

2 7

3 8

4 9

5 10

Average Time:

Calculations

1.
Find the average acceleration of the washers using the average time above and
the measured distance (half the total string length) using the kinematics
equations:

Questions

1.
Which example(s) represent balanced forces acting on the objects? Which
example(s) demonstrate unbalanced forces?

2.
Draw a FBD for both sets of washers when you had 5 suspended on each side.
Calculate and label the magnitude of all forces, taking the mass of each washer
to be 3.5 g. Label the tension force from the string T (what direction does
this always point?).

3.
Write out Newton’s second law fore each mass depicted in your FBD. Calculate
the acceleration of each mass and the tension (T) of the string.

4.
Draw similar diagrams for the cases where the mass is uneven, again labeling
all forces. Use m1 = 5 washers and m2 = 10 washers.

5.
Write out a second law equation for each mass in this uneven case. Why must the
accelerations be equal?

6.
Combine the above equations to solve for the overall acceleration of both
masses and the string tension (T).

7.
Use this equation to find the acceleration for the washers in Procedure 2 (6
and 5 washers). Why can you use the arbitrary mass units of 6 washers and 5
washers instead of grams or kilograms and still calculate an acceleration in
m/s2?

8. Are your results in accordance with your prior calculation? Find the percent error between your calculated (theoretical) and measured (actual) values.

8. Are your results in accordance with your prior calculation? Find the percent error between your calculated (theoretical) and measured (actual) values.

Experiment
3: Action/Reaction Pairs

Questions

1.
Describe the motion of the balloon and the container once the pressure became
too great.

2.
If you conducted this experiment in outer space, how would the test tube and
balloon move?

3.
Calculate the accelerations for a 10 g balloon and a 5 g test tube if the force
of the chemical reaction is 0.05 N. What would the velocity of each object be
if the reaction exerted this force for 2 seconds?

4.
Explain what causes the recoil of a powerful rifle or cannon when a projectile
is fired at high speeds. Calculate the force required to accelerate a 30 g
bullet to a speed of 400 m/s in 0.0025 s.

Experiment
4: Accelerating Balloon

Questions

1.
Explain what caused the balloon to move in terms of Newton’s Third Law.

2.
What is the force pair in this experiment? Draw a Free Body Diagram (FBD) to
represent the (unbalanced) forces on the balloon/straw combination.

3.
Add some mass to the straw by taping some metal washers to the bottom and
repeat the experiment. How does this change the motion of the assembly? How
does this change the FBD?

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PHYS310 Lab 9 Work and Energy

Lab
9: Work and Energy

Exercise
9.1

Both
kinetic and potential energy are part of the thrill of roller coasters. For
this exercise, you will examine the path of a roller coaster

and
describe what type of energy is at work.

Questions:
use the figure above to complete the following

1.
Describe the kinetic and potential energy at each point of the roller coaster
path:

2.
Between which points is the force of gravity doing positive work on the
coaster? Negative work?

3.
What happens to the roller coaster’s kinetic energy between points B and C?
What happens to its potential energy between these

points?

4.
Why is it important for A to be higher than C?

5.
If the roller coaster starts at point A, can it ever go higher than this point?
What causes the roller coaster train to lose energy over its

trip?

Experiment
9.1: Popper Physics

A
popper toy stores energy when you invert it, and releases energy when it “pops”
into the air. In this lab, students will calculate the

potential
and kinetic energy of a popper toy using simple formulas.

Questions

1.
What is the gravitational potential energy your popper has at its maximum
height you measured? Use g = 9.8 m/s, and a mass of 0.01

kg.

E
p = mgh =

2.
Use the following kinematics equations from Labs 4 and 5 to calculate the
initial velocity of the popper based on the time ( t ) it is in

the
air:

where
the final height h = 0 and initial height ho = 0 after the popper travels the
total time up and down over your measured time t.

3.
Use this value for the initial velocity to find the kinetic energy of the
popper right as it “pops” up.

4.
Compare your answers for potential energy and kinetic energy. Are they the
same, or close to the same?

5.
Is the actual energy stored in the popper rubber before it “pops” more or less
than the energy the popper has at its highest point?

Why?

Experiment
9.2: Stored Energy

In
this lab you will learn about the applications of the conservation of energy by
creating your own stored energy toy!

Materials

•
*Empty coffee or oatmeal can with plastic lid

•
Skewer

•
2 rubber bands (may need larger ones)

•
2 Steel bolts

•
2 Push pins

Questions

1.
What is happening inside the can that converts kinetic energy to potential
energy? What form of potential energy is this?

2.
How is the stored energy converted back to kinetic energy?

3.
What function does the suspended mass have? Why is it crucial that this is a
relatively heavy object?

4.
Let’s say your can has covers a distance of 3 m in 5 seconds under constant
acceleration. Use kinematics equations and Newton’s

second
law to calculate:

a)
the acceleration of the can,

b)
the net force on the can,

c)
the work required to apply this force over the given distance, and

d)
the power required to do this work over the given time. Use a can mass of 500
g.

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PHYS310 Lab 11 Center of Mass

**Physics 310 Experiment 11 - Center of Mass**

Experiment 1: Identifying the Center of Mass Questions

1.
Explain why the figure below does not represent a realistic object and center
of mass.

2.
For most circumstances, the terms “center of mass” and “center of gravity”
refer to the same point in space. Can you think of any situations where using
the term “center of gravity” might not make sense?

3.
Find the position of the center of mass in Figure 3 with the following
information: m1 = m2 = 3 kg, m3 = 5 kg, x1 = 2 m, x2 = -2 m, x3= -3 m. Copy the
figure below and draw in the center of mass as point CM.

4.
Why is it important for the lemurs below (Figure 5) to have such long tails?
What kind of environments are animals like these suited for?

Experiment
2: “Gravity-defying” Utensils Questions

1.
Draw a top view of the utensils, and mark where the center of mass is located.

2.
Does the arrangement really defy gravity? Describe what is happening in terms
of the center of mass.

Experiment 3: Stability A Questions

Experiment 3: Stability A Questions

1.
When did the blocks typically fall over?

2.
Which stack of blocks (3 or 4) had a lower center of mass? Which set tipped
over at the largest angle?

3.
If you were building a skyscraper in a windy city, where would you want most of
the building’s weight to be located?

Experiment
4: Stability B Questions

Table
1: Tilt angle where filled bottle becomes unstable

1.
Draw a rough diagram for each case showing the placement of the center of mass
(point CM) and the maximum angle of the bottle reached.

2.
Explain why you were able to tilt the bottle more in some cases more than
others.

3.
How soon do you think the bottle would tip over if you would fill only the top
half?

Experiment 5: Irregular shapes Questions

Experiment 5: Irregular shapes Questions

1.
How is the mass distributed on either side of the pin as the object hangs?

2.
Why does this method work? (Hint: explain why the plumb line allows you to find
the center of mass about different axes.)

3.
What does the point where the three lines intersect represent?

4.
Is the third line necessary to find the center of mass?

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PHYS310 Lab 12 Momentum

Lab
12: Momentum

Experiment
12.1: Conservation of Momentum

In
this experiment you will demonstrate transfers of momentum similar to those of
the Newton’s Cradle toy pictured in Figure 12.1. The

velocity
of a marble after impact depends on the original velocity and the mass of the
objects at hand.

Procedure

1.
Fold a sheet of paper in half to create chute for your marbles to travel down.

2.
Line up four marbles in the center of the ruler, making sure they are all
touching. Set up a barrier so that you can catch your marbles

easily
when they leave the ruler.

3.
Hold the chute so that the end lies in the ruler’s groove, and let a marble go
inside. You want the marble to exit the chute onto the

ruler
groove and collide with the line of marbles you set up.

4.
Try angling the chute less or placing the marble closer to the ruler to
decrease the speed of the collision, noting any difference in the

velocity
of the marbles after collision.

5.
Increase the speed of the collision and see what happens.

6.
Finally, try dropping two marbles at once so that they hit the line as a pair.

Questions

1.
When one marble hit the end of the line of marbles, how many shot off the other
end? Explain why this happens, as opposed to more

than
one shooting off.

2.
How did the speed of the marble that comes off the end of the line change as
you increased the speed of the

marble
that travels down the chute? Use what you know about the conservation of
momentum to describe

what
is happening.

3.
What happened when you sent two marbles down the chute?

4.
Write down the total momentum for two marbles of mass m both moving at velocity
v. What is the kinetic energy?

5.
When you drop two balls at once, why doesn’t only one marble come off the end
twice as fast? Write down the kinetic energy of one

marble
with mass m and velocity 2v and compare this to your answer in Question 4 to
check. (Note that we are assuming the collisions

are
perfectly elastic, when in reality this is an approximation.)

Experiment
12.2: Egg Drop

When
a fragile object is subject to a sudden acceleration, the strain on the
material can cause it to break. By increasing the time and

distance
over which an object accelerates or decelerates you can prevent damage that
might occur otherwise, even if the total change

in
momentum is the same. In this lab you will attempt to decelerate a falling egg
so that it does not break.

Questions

1.
Did you come up with a design that prevents the egg from breaking?

2.
Why did adding layers of paper work better than one thick layer with the same
number of sheets? (Hint: over how much time is the

force
applied in each case?)

3.
What did you do to improve your apparatus?

4.
Explain how a circus net prevents trapeze artists from injuring themselves even
after falling from a large height.

5.
Why it is important to bend your knees when you hit the ground after jumping
from several feet in the air?

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PHYS310 Lab 13 Uniform Circular
Motion

Physics 310 Lab 13 - Uniform Circular Motion

*Tutorial includes complete laboratory (including methods and materials, experimental data, full explanations, and diagrams) with the following questions answered:*

Lab Exercise

Experiment 1: Balancing the Centripetal Force

Table 1: Period data for revolving washer with variable radius

Questions

1. If you suddenly cut the string connected to your rotating mass, what would be the direction of its velocity? Draw a diagram showing the direction of motion of an object just cut from a circular revolution.

2. How did the period of revolution change to account for a larger and smaller radius? How did the angular frequency change?

3. Draw a circle to represent the path taken by your rotating mass. Place a dot on the circle to represent your rotating washer. Add a straight line from the dot to the center of the circle, representing the radius of rotation (the string). Now label the direction of the tangential velocity, centripetal force, and the centrifugal “force.”

4. Use your data to find the average period for each radius. Use this and the rest of your data to calculate a) the average velocity of your spinning mass, b) its angular velocity in rad/sec, and c) the centripetal acceleration for each radius.

5. How is the centripetal force on the revolving washer related to the force of gravity on the hanging washers? Write an expression that equates the centripetal force Fc of the rotating mass to the force of gravity on the hanging mass. Write your expression in terms of m1 (revolving mass), m2 (hanging mass), T, R, and g.

6. What do you notice about your centripetal acceleration values in Question 4? Explain this result knowing the relationship between centripetal acceleration and centripetal force, given the experimental constant 4m1 = m2.

7. Solve your expression above for the period T in terms of R and g.

8. Plug in your radius values into this equation to find the expected frequency of rotation. Record these values in the table above. Were your experimental values close? How could you improve the experiment to reduce error?

9. Use the rotational kinematics equations to calculate the angular acceleration necessary to increase the angular velocity of your spinning mass from 10 rad/s to 20 rad/s in a time of 8 seconds.

Lab Exercise

Experiment 1: Balancing the Centripetal Force

Table 1: Period data for revolving washer with variable radius

Questions

1. If you suddenly cut the string connected to your rotating mass, what would be the direction of its velocity? Draw a diagram showing the direction of motion of an object just cut from a circular revolution.

2. How did the period of revolution change to account for a larger and smaller radius? How did the angular frequency change?

3. Draw a circle to represent the path taken by your rotating mass. Place a dot on the circle to represent your rotating washer. Add a straight line from the dot to the center of the circle, representing the radius of rotation (the string). Now label the direction of the tangential velocity, centripetal force, and the centrifugal “force.”

4. Use your data to find the average period for each radius. Use this and the rest of your data to calculate a) the average velocity of your spinning mass, b) its angular velocity in rad/sec, and c) the centripetal acceleration for each radius.

5. How is the centripetal force on the revolving washer related to the force of gravity on the hanging washers? Write an expression that equates the centripetal force Fc of the rotating mass to the force of gravity on the hanging mass. Write your expression in terms of m1 (revolving mass), m2 (hanging mass), T, R, and g.

6. What do you notice about your centripetal acceleration values in Question 4? Explain this result knowing the relationship between centripetal acceleration and centripetal force, given the experimental constant 4m1 = m2.

7. Solve your expression above for the period T in terms of R and g.

8. Plug in your radius values into this equation to find the expected frequency of rotation. Record these values in the table above. Were your experimental values close? How could you improve the experiment to reduce error?

9. Use the rotational kinematics equations to calculate the angular acceleration necessary to increase the angular velocity of your spinning mass from 10 rad/s to 20 rad/s in a time of 8 seconds.

##
PHYS310 Lab 14 Torque And
Rotation

Experiment
1: Open Door Torque

Questions

1.
How
did the force required to move the door vary as you moved toward the hinges?
How did the speed of the door change?

2.
Assuming
you applied the same force at each position of the door; describe how the
applied torque varied as you moved closer to the hinge.

3.
Assuming
that the door is relatively thin, the moment of inertia will be the same as
that of a rod rotating about an axis at its end.* If the mass of the door is 10
kg and its width is 1.5 m, find the angular acceleration of the door after
applying a 50 N pushing force (about 10 lbs) at

**a)**1 m from the hinge, compared to**b)**20 cm from the hinge.
4.
Explain
why door handles are positioned where they are, and not closer to the hinges.

Experiment
2: Rotating Ruler

Questions

1.
How
much effort was required (approximately) to rotate the ruler when you reduced
the end mass by a factor of two?

2.
Which
clay setup produced the largest moment of inertia? The smallest? Explain why in
terms of the relationship between torque and angular acceleration. Make sure to
incorporate the distance from the axis of rotation in your answer.

3.
Estimate
how much more clay you had to add in step 5 for the moment of inertia for each
setup to appear the same.

4.
Use
the information in Table 1 to show that it requires four times as much mass at
half the distance from the center in order to produce the same moment of
inertia. Assume the ruler mass is negligible.

Experiment
3: Static Lever

**Table 1: Balancing force applied to lever at varying distance**

Questions

1.
How
did the required force vary as

*R*increased?_{1}
2.
Determine
the applied torque at each distance (make sure to use the correct distance!) to
complete the above table. Comment on your results.

3.
How
would you expect your data to change with an

*R*value half of what you used above?_{2}
4.
Write
an expression equating the torque applied by the spring scale and the mass.
Rearrange this to create an expression for the applied force

*F*in terms of*R*,_{1}*R*, the total mass_{2}*m*, and*g*.
5.
Make
a plot of the force

*F*vs.*R*/_{2}*R*using the graph paper. Draw a line of best fit through your data, and measure the slope._{1 }*m*= _______________
6.
What
does this slope value represent? Find the percent difference from the known
value. (

*Hint: compare your expression from Question 4 with the general slope-intercept form**y = mx +b*.)##
PHYS310 Lab 19 Fluid Mechanics

Experiment
1: Effects of Density

Questions

1.
Sketch
and label what the arrangement of objects and liquids is in the beaker.

1.
Rank
the liquids and solids in order of least to most dense.

2.
Which
of the solid materials used in this experiment would make the best boat?

3.
Would
it be easier to design a boat in a world with oceans of maple syrup? What
property of maple syrup might prevent boats from traveling in it very
effectively compared with in water?

Experiment 2: Principles of
Moving Fluid

Questions

1.
Why
did the candle blow out in Procedure 1?

2.
Draw
the air flow around the beaker and illustrate what happened to cause the candle
to go out.

3.
What
did you observe when blowing over the strip of paper in Procedure 2? Describe
why this happens in terms of a) the pressure on each side of the strip, and b)
the force exerted on the air by the strip surface.

4.
Would
this experiment still work if the curved strip was made of a light but rigid
(unbendable) material? Draw the direction of airflow over the top of a rigid,
curved strip. Indicate the forces exerted on both the moving air and the strip
material.

Experiment 3: Bernoulli’s
Principle

Questions

1.
What
happened when you blew into the horizontal straw?

2.
Explain
why this happens in terms of air velocity and pressure above and inside the
vertical straw.

3.
Were
you able to blow either index card off the table very easily in Procedure 3?
Explain.

4. Describe what happens to the cards as the air moves underneath using Bernoulli’s principle.

4. Describe what happens to the cards as the air moves underneath using Bernoulli’s principle.

##
PHYS310 COMPLETE COURSE PHYS
310 COMPLETE COURSE

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